Experts talk about opportunities or traps of Forest Pulp paper integration (1)
at present, China has entered the ranks of the world's major paper producers, consumers and importers, and the total consumption of paper products is second only to the United States, ranking second in the world; Pulp and paper products are the third largest category of products imported by China after oil and steel
although "mainly wood pulp, supplemented by straw pulp" was proposed as the development direction of China's paper industry as early as 1951, in great contrast, China has low forest coverage, extremely poor per capita resources and uneven geographical distribution of resources
in order to alleviate the shortage of paper raw materials and solve the contradiction between supply and demand of the paper industry, the only way out should be to accelerate the development of fast-growing and high-yield forests in suitable areas, and take the pulp and paper enterprises as the core, combine afforestation, pulp and paper, and take the road of "Forest Pulp paper integration"
China is implementing the forestry development strategy focusing on ecological construction, which determines that the protagonist of accelerating the development of fast-growing and high-yield forests should be the society and the market rather than the government. Among the six major forestry projects, the government did not hesitate to spend a lot of money on projects such as returning farmland to forests, natural forest protection, and sandstorm source control aimed at improving the ecological environment, which also proved this
therefore, the introduction of domestic and foreign strategic investors has become a natural idea to solve the construction fund problem of the forest pulp paper integration project. Following this line of thought, coupled with the popularity of the concept of "taking economic construction as the center", local governments seem to have no reason not to favor such strategic investors
in today's bright paper market, if the local area does have the natural conditions suitable for accelerating the development of fast-growing and high-yield forests, and indeed introduces companies with real investment strength at home and abroad, it is possible to turn opportunities into continuous profits
however, opportunities are often accompanied by risks. The industrial chain of the forest pulp paper integration project, which has many links, from tree planting to pulping to papermaking, is obviously too long. If a link goes wrong, it is very easy to produce a "domino" effect. A little carelessness may be a trap
for example, whether the fast-growing tree species planted are suitable, whether the pollution problem of pulping and papermaking can be solved, whether the supply of raw materials can keep up in the long run, and so on, all of which are enough to turn opportunities into traps. Of course, there is another point that is more crucial, that is, the real strength of investors - to a large extent, the forest pulp paper integration project is capital intensive
the integration of forestry, pulp and paper is in the ascendant in China, which shows that opportunities rather than traps are often the first things that are easy to see in such projects. However, today, when the scientific concept of development is becoming more and more popular, people can't help asking: is the integration of Forest Pulp and paper, which is showing the trend of "big work and fast progress" in China, an opportunity or a trap
Part 1: for the convenience of writing, it is necessary to explain one point in advance: strictly speaking, since 2003, it is golden light paper (China) Investment Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as "golden light (China)") that has set off a round of investment upsurge and triggered disputes in China, rather than app (Asia Pulp & paper, namely Asia Pulp and Paper Co., Ltd., hereinafter referred to as app). In 2002, golden light (China) has officially become the owner of all app businesses and assets in China. (see the second part of this article, "expansion after the crisis")
last year, Jinguang (China) signed agreements with Simao, Wenshan, Lincang and other places in Yunnan Province to invest in the construction of a large-scale forest pulp paper integration project. Out of concern that the project may cause harm to the ecological environment of Yunnan, when the project was still brewing, many experts objected to this, believing that it was no less harmful to the ecological environment than the construction of Nujiang dam
since this year, with the gradual implementation of the project, there have been some phenomena that damage the ecological environment, and more social media have also joined the ranks of skeptics. For a time, the Yunnan forestry pulp paper integration project became controversial
Eucalyptus is undoubtedly the starting point of the dispute
the business plan of planting fast-growing eucalyptus forests in a large area has been questioned. Simao is one of the regions with the largest woodland area in Yunnan. In 2002, the letter of intent for the cooperation between Jinguang (China) and Simao to build a forest pulp paper integration project that can carry out complex data analysis was signed in Kunming; In January 2003, the construction scale was expanded from 6million Mu to 10.66 million mu; At the Kunming Trade Fair in August of that year, the afforestation base was finally determined to be 12million Mu when it was officially signed with the Simao regional administration
the cooperation with Simao is only part of the huge cooperation between Jinguang (how to detect the thermal properties of thin films has become an international difficult country) and Yunnan Province. In 2003, the company also signed agreements with Wenshan, Lincang and others to cooperate in the construction of Forest Pulp paper integration projects. According to reports, according to these agreements, Jinguang (China) will invest a total of about $4billion, and the delineated afforestation base area is as high as more than 26 million mu. It should be noted that eucalyptus is introduced into Yunnan as the main fast-growing tree species by Jinguang (China) as a pulp raw material forest
"as the province with the richest biological resources in China, is it suitable to build such a large area of fast-growing eucalyptus forest?"
although the relevant government departments were delighted to set a record for attracting investment, experts could not help but have doubts: "the planting area of nearly 30million Mu is equivalent to nearly 10% of the existing forest land of more than 20 million hectares in Yunnan Province. Once it is really occupied by a single tree species, it will pose an unimaginable severe challenge to biodiversity."
of course, it is obviously unfair to criticize the large-scale construction of artificial eucalyptus forests from the perspective of easily leading to soil erosion, intensification of pests and diseases, loss of biodiversity and increase of forest fires. Fortunately, no one seems to be too obsessed with it. After all, in Yunnan, known as the "biological kingdom", even if such a large area of Chinese fir forests or other artificial forests are planted, the consequences are also unimaginable
the high gloss silver, bright black spray free material developed by Jin min was reported by Xinhua news agency during the arbor day this year, "the productivity of the artificial Chinese fir forest is lower than that of the first generation due to the decline of soil fertility, and the loss volume of the second and third generations of the artificial forest is 30 ~ 45 cubic meters per hectare within 20 years." People may be really concerned that continuous harvesting of more than 20 million mu of Fast-growing Eucalyptus during the 50 year agreement period will have a disastrous impact on the local ecological environment
according to the mainstream of forestry, eucalyptus plantations have poor water storage and need to consume a lot of water during their growth, resulting in the decline of groundwater level in the forest land and surrounding land, and even ground fissures; At the same time, eucalyptus plantation consumes a lot of nutrients in the forest land. Continuous planting and repeated cutting on a piece of land will make the soil fertility lower and lower, and even form a barren land. Therefore, the Artificial Eucalyptus forest is called "water pump" and "fertilizer pump". The biggest breakthrough in soil fertilizer lies in the decline of headlights, which will inevitably cause the wood output per unit area of Fast-growing Eucalyptus to decline one crop at a time
the school of life sciences of Yunnan University has a subject, which is to make a comparative study of five forest species, including eucalyptus forest and local Yunnan pine forest, evergreen broad-leaved forest, coniferous broad-leaved mixed forest, and barren slope shrub grass, for more than 10 years
"Our research has fully proved that among the five tree species, exotic eucalyptus has the worst soil and water conservation effect and self-renewal ability. It cannot reproduce naturally by seeds, and has great inhibition on protozoa species in different places, which is not friendly to the environment. Large area continuous planting can easily lead to serious ecological crises such as land barrenness, protozoa species attenuation and degradation, forming a 'green desert'. Moreover, it may not appear in twoorthree years. ”Professor duanchangqun of the Academy told China Youth Daily